Institute of History of the State

Republic of Kazakhstan, Nur-Sultan city, Beibitshilik Street, 4


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K.M. Ilyassova

Candidate of historical science

Associate Professor,

Leading research

fellow of the Institute

of State History (Kazakhstan)


«...the soviet government placed over the Turkestan troops

And sacrifi ced women and children’s lives

(See in Ryskulov`s, Sorokin`s and Safarov`s evidence»

Mustafa Shokhay

In a context of these directions before a historical science of Kazakhstan there was a task of objective consideration of the history of Kazakhstan of the Soviet period, including history of famine and political repressions. In Ahmet Baytursynov’s well-known article «Revolution and Kirghyz» it was emphasized: «as far as February revolution was clear to Kazakhs, realities of October revolution» were so unclear. Really, after February revolution of 1917 aspiring to the power Bolsheviks subordinated masses by deception, fear and violence, creating new society.

Mustapha Shokay provides Zhusipbek Aymauytov’s following characteristic about a situation in which there were Kazakhs in the fi rst years of the Soviet construction: «war, revolution, robberies, hunger, national independence, autonomy... the Kazakh – Kirghiz to the people did not guess about it, suddenly they were appeared to be in embraces of hunger and extreme poverty (Kirghyz Kazakh)... such understanding of a socialist revolution sounded at congress of employees of political and educational institutions in Kyzyl-Orda» / Shokhay M. (the characteristic of dictatorship of the proletariat) [Shokhay M. The chosen works : Three parts. 3. – Almaty : Publishing house «Kainar». -2007. -384 page. –P.142].

The Movement history of Alash, destinies of the subjected to repression representatives of national elite are object of the deep scientifi c analysis of the professional historian Mambet Koygeldiyev which divides political repressions into fi ve stages (1918–1920; 1923–1932; 1932–1937/38; beginning 1940 – end 1950; 1985–1991).

The author comes to an important conclusion: the last stage is characterized by signs of obvious crash of socialist system, thus a totalitarian mode shows the frailty without continuous repressive actions [Koigeldiev M. To forget the equality of nations is dangerous for the society. /Alash Ainasy. - №92. 31.05.2011]. Such is the history of «permanent political repressions» of the Bolsheviks, originating since far 1917. For example, well-known historian K. Esmaganbetov writes: «by not considering the number of children who were not born, Kazakhs lost about 4 million people in 1932–1933» [Esmaganbetov К. М. The reason of Kazakh famine Kazakh National Pedagogical University, №2 (29), 2011. 107-114 pages. P.114].

In days of collectivization a tragic subject were represented in works of representatives of Alash, Saken Seyfullin`s «Kyzyl аt», Ilyas Zhansugurov`s «Confi scation», «Zhut-zheti agaiyndy». In the poem «Zhut Zheti Agaiyndy» the cannibalism facts in the Kazakh steppe are shown: «Күнiне қазақ мыңдап өлiп жатыр, Tұқымы сағат сайын кемiп жатыр. Өз баласын өзi үйiтiп, сирағын жеп, Koр азабын тiрiдей көрiп жатыр» [Kolbayev Т. Intellectuals of the nation are in famine./].

The terrible historical reality is so shown in historical fi ction. In the conclusion I am desirable to tell – Kazakh people survived, held out in tragic days of famines, wars, but couldn’t take out the tragic hunger during the domination of the Soviet totalitarian mode. Unfortunately, economic and demographic consequences of tragic events are still felt. To remember bitter lessons of history, million victims of great hunger is a duty of descendants.

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